Dr. Danielle Kreeger, Science Coordinator for the Partnership for
the Delaware Estuary and Associate Professor, Drexel University will
HEALTHY BIVALVES = HEALTHY WATERSHEDS: REBUILDING Bivalve Biodiversity, Populations AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AS A BASIS OF ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION
Dr. Danielle Kreeger is an ecologist with more than 25 years of experience working as a research scientist and educator. She currently serves as science director for the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, where she represents the National Estuary Program’s scientific interests by leading and participating in collaborative science and technical teams that address the goals set forth by the organization’s Comprehensive Conservation Management Program. Her other responsibilities include organizing a biennial Delaware Estuary Science Conference and charting science, management and restoration needs in the Estuary. In addition to her work for the Partnership, she maintains appointments as associate research professor at Drexel University and senior research scientist with the Academy of Natural Sciences.
Dr. James G. Geiger (Jaime)
Dr. James G. Geiger was appointed Assistant Regional Director- Fisheries for the Northeast Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Hadley, Massachusetts in November, 2000. Jaime provides management leadership for programs, issues, and policies relative to the protection of fish and wildlife resources throughout the Region with emphasis on recovery, restoration, and management of interjurisdictional fish species and their related habitats.
Robin Abell is a conservation biologist and directs the freshwater science group in WWF's Conservation Science Program. She specializes in developing approaches for broad-scale conservation planning to protect freshwater biodiversity. Her first major project with WWF was a conservation assessment of North America's freshwater ecoregions, and she is the lead coordinator for Freshwater Ecoregions of the World. She has also helped to develop ecoregion-based conservation strategies for a number of high-priority ecoregions, including the Amazon/Guianas and Mekong. Her research interests include the use of protected areas to conserve freshwater systems, and she is an active member of the World Commission on Protected Areas' new Freshwater Taskforce. Robin is a founder of the Society for Conservation Biology's freshwater working group and was content co-coordinator for the American Museum of Natural History's 2005 spring symposium, New Currents in Conserving Freshwater Systems. She has a bachelor's degree in environmental studies and American studies from Yale University and a master's degree in freshwater ecology from the University of Michigan.
CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF FRESHWATERS IN A CHANGING WORLD. Robin Abell, World Wildlife Fund - United States, 1250 24th St. NW, Washington, DC 20037.
Inland water systems and species are on average around the world more imperilled than their terrestrial and marine counterparts. The future will likely see an expansion of water infrastructure development, land cover conversion, invasive species, and unsustainable resource use, among other threats, as human populations grow and communities respond to climate change-induced alterations to water resources. Effectively conserving and managing inland water biodiversity and the ecological functions that underpin essential ecosystem services will require more than maintaining the conservation status quo.
Conservation and management strategies must acknowledge both the ever more globalized nature of threats to inland water systems, often from distant markets, and the need to apply local solutions. A subset of emerging conservation strategies seeks to transform markets by working with multinational corporations to improve the production practices of the inputs they source. Other more local strategies are increasingly scaled to the threats they are attempting to address. Managers are now moving from restoring individual riffles to evaluating how best to address catchment impacts through a range of complementary approaches, including but not limited to non-traditional applications of protected areas, implementation of environmental flows, and payment for ecosystem services, all within the context of integrated river basin management. These strategies and others will need to be designed against the backdrop of climate change, which may create strong incentives for new infrastructure to reduce water-related risk but may also provide openings for more integrated water resource planning and management.
None of these strategies is a silver bullet for inland water systems, and the efficacy of most has yet to be rigorously evaluated. Undertaking evidence-based conservation will help to clarify which strategies work and in what circumstances, and will provide exciting research opportunities for a new generation of scientists and practitioners
Dr. Kellogg Schwab
Dr. Schwab is actively involved in the Center for Water and Health at The Johns Hopkins University. The goal of this Center is to integrate Hopkins researchers from multiple disciplines to address water-related public health issues. Dr Schwab's overall research focus is the development of new approaches to evaluate human microbial exposure assessment and to investigate the fate and transport of agents in the environment. Current research projects involve improving environmental detection methods for Noroviruses and investigating how many important human pathogens including Noroviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses, antibiotic resistant Campylobacter, antibiotic resistant enterococci, Cryptosporidium parvum, Toxoplasma
WATER POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH. Kellogg Schwab, Director-Johns Hopkins Center for Water and Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Environmental Health Engineering, 615 N. Wolfe St. Room E6620, Baltimore, MD 21205-2103.
Infectious pathogens including the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella; protozoa including Cryptosporidium and Giardia and viruses, in particular noroviruses and adenoviruses, contaminate water and contribute to human morbidity and the deaths of mil¬lions of people worldwide every year. Nearly 2 million people-most of them children under five-die every year from diar¬rheal diseases. Nearly 20 percent of the 6.6 billion people in the world lack ac¬cess to a supply of improved drinking water, and 40 percent lack sanitation facilities. Human illness can originate from drinking or bathing in water contaminated by point source pollution such as human sewage outfalls. However, non-point pollution is also a major contributor to contamination of drinking water sources and marine and fresh water recreation areas. As opposed to point source pollution, non-point pollution sources are diffuse and heterogeneous and include agricultural runoff, malfunctioning or poorly maintained septic tanks, leaking sewer infrastructure, as well as waste from wildlife and even pets. No panacea for water treatment exists. To ensure that the water supply is clean enough to drink, most modern drinking-water plants amass an arsenal of treatment options. A multibarrier approach might include physical processes such as coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, and filtra¬tion, in conjunction with disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramines, ultraviolet radiation or ozone. Such systems for cleansing community drinking water are public investments that pay dividends. Clean water improves general health and reduces health-care costs, thereby en¬abling greater productivity among community members and redirection of public funds to other pressing needs. Unfortunately, worldwide, many rural and low-income localities cannot afford the infrastructure required for large, centralized drinking-water facilities. In many instances, if there is any treatment at all, it consists of single-barrier point-of-use water treatment such as filtration through clay pots. It is evident that improvements to source water decrease stress on drinking water treatment. On a global scale, an ideal filter to improve source water could be the use of natural systems including constructed wetlands or bivalve mollusks. Our research has revealed that bivalves are effective at sequestering microbial pathogens including viruses and protozoa. Protecting entire watersheds and the respective community ecosystems could vastly improve water quality. But because many watersheds span several states or even countries, most management plans are politically complex. A comprehensive watershed-management plan must incorporate multiple stakeholders' needs and conflicting interests.
Bryan Arroyo is the Assistant Director for the Endangered Species Program, having previously held the position of Deputy Assistant Director. Previously, he was the Assistant Regional Director for Ecological Services in the Southwest Region since December 1998. As Assistant Regional Director, Bryan led region wide implementation of the Endangered Species Act, Environmental Contaminants, Federal Activities, Habitat Conservation, Partners for Fish and Wildlife, and the Coastal Program